Different weed control methods
Burning crop residues
Burning can reduce the surface seed banks of many weeds. All crop residues (canola, wheat, lupin and others) can produce a sufficiently heated burn to kill weed seeds. A narrow windrow will burn at a higher temperature and improve weed seed kill.
Encouraging insect predation of seed
Weed seeds provide a major component of many insect diets (predominantly ants). There are methods to increase populations of insects over the summer/autumn fallow and therefore increase insect consumption of seeds.
Fully inverting the soil will ensure that weed seeds that were on or just below the soil surface are placed at a depth from which they cannot germinate. This can be practiced every 8-10 years, with conservation tillage used in the intervening years. In Western Australia, annual ryegrass seeds failed to establish and eventually died when soil was fully inverted to a depth of greater than 20 centimetres (cm) using a specialist mouldboard plough fitted with skimmers. This single soil inversion event reduced annual ryegrass numbers by over 95% at Katanning and Beverley for a period of two years.
This does not destroy seeds but rather buries them to a depth of 1-2cm, enhancing seed germination by increasing contact with soil moisture. This encourages weed seeds to germinate earlier. A delay between the tickle and seeding is necessary to give an opportunity for the weeds to germinate and then be killed using a knockdown herbicide. The delay to seeding will result in a yield penalty for some crops.
This allows greater germination of weeds in particularly weedy paddocks, which can then be killed using a knockdown herbicide or cultivation prior to crop sowing. The longer the delay in sowing, the more weeds germinate and the higher the kill. However, a yield penalty is experienced when sowing is delayed.