Salinity tolerance of plants for agriculture and revegetation in Western Australia

Page last updated: Thursday, 11 August 2022 - 4:36pm

Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review.

Plant tolerance of salinity in the tables below are a guide only. Some of the references estimate salt tolerance from salinity of water used to irrigate seedlings, and this makes comparison with soil salinity difficult. The 'best' information in the tables is based on measurement of soil salinity around plants growing in the field, however, this type of information is rare.

The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development recommends using local grower and nursery experience, and specialist advice before investing in salt tolerant species.

Please note

The information in these tables is only a guide – the information is drawn from many references, and only some of them are refereed technical articles based on data. Also, the measures of salinity and waterlogging are sometimes in situations unlikely to be experienced in the field.

The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development recommends that any dryland salinity management is part of a whole farm, and preferably a whole catchment, water management plan.

What is salinity tolerance?

The short answer is, the tolerance of a plant to levels of salt in the soil water. However, it can get complicated, as salts will affect plants in different ways based on a range of factors:

  • salinity of irrigation water
  • salinity of soil
  • soil moisture
  • wind-borne salt spray
  • salinity of groundwater and depth to the watertable (in summer and winter)
  • soil type
  • interaction with waterlogging
  • timing and amount of rain
  • temperature and evaporation stress
  • stage of growth of the plant.

Some of the references below estimate salt tolerance from salinity of water used to irrigate seedlings, and this makes comparison with soil salinity difficult. The 'best' information in the tables is based on measurement of soil salinity around plants growing in the field, however, this type of information is rare.

Measuring salinity

All measurements are expressed as electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste (ECe) unless stated otherwise. All salinity units are in milliSiemens per meter (mS/m). See Measuring salinity for the reason that this measure and units are use, and for more information and conversion to other measures and units. 

We recommend that you check each reference for the actual salinity measure and units recorded against a species.

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Plants in this list

Some exotic (not Australian) tree and shrub species are included in the lists, but these are not recommended for revegetation intended to have natural diversity values in Western Australia. Some of the exotic species and species from other regions of Australia (marked with *) are known environmental weeds.

For most plants in these lists, links from the proper names take you to FloraBase, the database of Western Australian flora. Where FloraBase does not contain the species, the links go to other credible sites.

Categories of salinity tolerance used in these tables

Table 1 Plants tolerant of extremely saline sites (ECe >1600 mS/m)

Table 1 Plants tolerant of extremely saline sites (ECe >1600mS/m)

Proper Name
(links to FloraBase)

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments

Acacia ampliceps

Salt wattle shrub (2) (32) records good performance to >2000 mS/m ECe

Acacia cyclops

Coastal wattle shrub

Severe to extreme tolerance (2, 3, 12) Sensitive to waterlogging.

Acacia stenophylla

River Coobah, river myall  

(2, 14, 17) (22) Gives range of 1500–2500 mS/m. (25) suggests moderate or very salt tolerant and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Atriplex amnicola

River saltbush  shrub

(21, 22, 24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils, and up to 3800 mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Reputed to be slightly more salt tolerant, and more waterlogging tolerant than other Atriplex species. (25) Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 700–1100 mS/m. Halophyte

Atriplex bunburyana

Silver saltbush shrub

(24). Sensitive to waterlogging. Halophyte.

Atriplex cinerea

Grey saltbush shrub

(21) Moderate waterlogging tolerance (24). (25) says moderate waterlogging tolerance. Halophyte.

Atriplex lentiformis

Quailbrush shrub

(22) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils, and up to 3800  mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Low waterlogging tolerance. Halophyte.

Atriplex muelleri

  shrub

(22) Reports tolerance in subtropical and tropical areas of up to 3800 mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Halophyte.

Atriplex nummularia

Old man saltbush shrub

(21) Low waterlogging tolerance (24). (25) suggests moderate to very salt tolerant. Halophyte.

Atriplex paludosa

Marsh saltbush shrub

Halophyte

Atriplex semibaccata

Creeping saltbush herbaceous shrub

(26). Halophyte.

Atriplex undulata*

Wavy-leafed saltbush shrub

(22) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils. Moderate waterlogging tolerance(24). (25) Halophyte

Atriplex vesicaria

Bladder saltbush shrub

(26) Halophyte

Casuarina glauca

Grey buloke tree

(2) in 800–1600 mS/m. (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (8, 17) Wet or dry sites. (18) Gives 50% mortality at EC 1:5 of >400 mS/m. (20). High waterlogging tolerance. (25)

Casuarina obesa

Salt sheoak,

swamp sheoak

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (8, 9, 20) (27). High waterlogging tolerance.

Frankenia ambita, F. brachyphylla, F. fecunda

   

(15)

Melaleuca halmaturorum

Swamp paperbark tree

(4). (2, 14, 15, 17) (22) Gives range of 1500–2500 mS/m. (29)

Melaleuca thyoides

  shrub

(2, 4, 12)

Paspalum vaginatum

Saltwater couch grass

(19, 24) Very high waterlogging tolerance, low drought tolerance. Needs summer moisture. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 600–1600 mS/m

Puccinellia ciliata

Puccinellia perennial grass

(19, 21, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils.

Salicornia spp. (S. quinqueflora)

Glasswort, samphire herbaceous shrub

(16) Combined salt and waterlogging tolerance is particularly high. Halophyte.

Sporobolus virginicus

Marine couch perennial grass

(16). (24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils and wet sites.

Tecticornia spp. Samphire herbaceous  perennial (1, 16, 21) Combined waterlogging and salt tolerance is particularly high. (31) found that depth to the saline watertable in summer for good growth and survival was 0.7–1.0 m and subsoil ECe of 2700–6500 mS/m.

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Table 2 Plants tolerant of very saline sites (ECe 800–1600 mS/m)

Table 2 Plants tolerant of very saline sites (ECe 800–1600mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

References and comments

Acacia lineolata

Dwarf myall shrub or small tree

(12) Good waterlogging tolerance

Acacia ampliceps

Salt wattle shrub or small tree

(2)

Acacia brumalis

   

(3, 12) Sensitive to waterlogging

Acacia cyclops

Coastal wattle shrub or small tree

(2, 3, 12) See 'Extremely' table above.

Acacia ligulata

Umbrella bush  

(14)

Acacia mutabilis subsp. stipulifera

   

(12)

Acacia retinodes*

Wirilda  

(2). Waterlogging tolerant.

Acacia salicina

Coobah, willow wattle shrub or small tree

(2, 13) suckers and could be invasive. (25) suggests moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance.

Acacia saligna

Golden wreath wattle shrub or small tree

(2) Puts this into 400–800 mS/m. (3). (6) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (12). Moderate waterlogging tolerance. Variation in provenances. (25)

Casuarina equisetifolia*

Horsetail sheoak tree

(30)

Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. incana*

  tree

(7). Similar tolerance to Casuarina obesa and Casuarina glauca.

Eucalyptus cornuta

Yate tree

(27) Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus halophila

Salt lake mallee tree

(2). (4, 16) suggest extremely tolerant. (27) Low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus incrassata

Ridge-fruited mallee tree

(25) Low waterlogging tolerance. May be only moderately salt tolerant.

Eucalyptus kondininensis

Kondinin blackbutt tree

(2). (9, 10) Suggests tolerance in moderate to very saline sites. (14, 15). Low waterloging tolerance. (25)

Eucalyptus occidentalis

Flat-topped yate tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 200 mS/m. (9) (14) (15) (17) Wet or dry sites. (22) Range of 1500–2500 mS/m. Very waterlogging tolerant. (25). Provenance variation.

Eucalyptus raveretiana*

  tree

(2) suggests moderate tolerance. (20) suggests very tolerant or higher..

Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. sargentii

Salt river gum, Sargent's mallee tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (9) found tolerance for >3000 mS/m. (14, 15) Moderately waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus spathulata subsp. spathulata

Swamp mallet tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (8, 9, 14). Good waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance.

Hakea preissii

Needle bush shrub or small tree

Often seen on the margins of salt tlakes. Is reported to be moderately tolerant of waterlogging, salt and lakaline soils. Often seen as the shrub or tree layer over Atriplex bunburyana, especially on gypsum dunes adjacent to salt lakes.

Melaleuca cuticularis

Swamp paperbark, saltwater paperbark tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (10) suggests extremely tolerant. High waterlogging tolerance. (25)

Melaleuca decussata*

Cross-leaf honey myrtle shrub

(2, 13, 14, 17). Waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance.

Melaleuca hamulosa

  shrub

(11) (25)

Melaleuca lanceolata

Rottnest Island tea tree, moonah shrub

(2, 6, 13, 17). Needs well drained site. (25) suggest low to moderate salinity tolerance.

Melaleuca leucadendra

Cadjeput, long-leaved paperbark tree

(2) (32). Waterlogging tolerant. Good growth at 1200–2000 mS/m ECe

Melaleuca squarrosa*

Scented paperbark  

(2)

Phoenix dactylifera

Date palm   Yaish and Kumar (2015) report tolerances of 900–1280 mS/m. Kharusi et al (2017) report soil tolerances of up to 2400 mS/m. Alhammadi and Kurup (2012) report seedlings surviving up to 1280 mS/m. Cultivars differ in their tolerance of salt level.

Tamarix aphylla

Athel pine, tamarisk shrub or tree

(25). Moderate waterlogging tolerance. Tamarix aphylla is a weed of national (Australian) significance.

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Table 3 Plants tolerant of moderately saline sites (ECe 400–800 mS/m)

Table 3 Plants tolerant of moderately saline sites (ECe 400–800mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

References and comments

Acacia colletioides

Spine wattle Shrub

(12)

Acacia merrallii

Merrall's wattle  

(12)

Acacia pendula*

Weeping myall  

(17)

Acacia prainii

Prain's wattle  

(12)

Acacia redolens

   

Ravensthorpe source. (3, 12) Tolerance varies with seed source.

Allocasuarina leuhmannii*

Buloke tree

(2)

Allocasuarina verticillata*

Drooping sheoak  

(2, 17)

Callistemon paludosis*

River bottlebrush shrub

(17)

Callistemon phoeniceus

Lesser bottlebrush shrub

(11)

Casuarina cristata subsp. cristata*

Black oak, Belah shrub or small tree

(2). (7, 17) suggest highly tolerant.

Casuarina cristata subsp. pauper*

Belah shrub or small tree West Australian subsp.

Casuarina cunninghamiana*

River sheoak tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (17, 20). Very waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests moderate salinity tolerance.

Chloris gayana*

Rhodes grass perennial grass

(19, 22) Field observations in WA suggest higher tolerance than older references. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 500–1400 mS/m.

Eucalyptus phenax

  tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus angustissima

Narrow-leaved mallee tree

(2) suggests slight tolerance. (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus astringens

Brown mallet tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 50mS/m (non-saline). (16) Seed source critical. (27). Low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus comitae-vallis (Syn. Eucalyptus brachycorys)

Cowcowing mallee, Comet Vale mallee tree

(9)

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

River red gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly-saline) for Lake Albacutya provenance, and 100–150 for other lines. (8). (9) Suggests lower tolerance. (14, 15). (17, 20) Suggests higher tolerance. Provenance critical. (25). High waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus campaspe

Silver gimlet tree

(2). (14) suggests very tolerant of salinity. (25) low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus diptera

Two-winged gimlet tree

(9) Suggest higher tolerance. (25) low waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus famelica

Salt mallee tree

(2, 5). Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus foliosa

  tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus gomphocephala

Tuart tree

(2). Slight waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests slightly tolerant of salinity, and low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus largiflorens*

Black box, river box tree

(2, 13, 17) Wet or dry sites. (25) suggests slightly salt tolerant and moderately waterlogging tolerant.

Eucalyptus leptocalyx

Hopetoun mallee small tree

 

Eucalyptus lesouefii

Goldfields blackbutt tree

(14, 15)

Eucalyptus leucoxylon*

South Australian blue gum, yellow gum tree

(2) 4 named subsp. and highly variable: subsp. leucoxylon, subsp. pruinosa, subsp. stephaniae, subsp. megalocarpa. Provenance critical. (25)

Eucalyptus petiolaris (Syn. Eucalyptus leucoxylon subsp. petiolaris)

Eyre Peninsula blue gum tree

(15)

Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. lissophloia

Smooth barked York gum tree

 

Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba

York gum tree

(2) suggests slight tolerance. (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline) (9, 14). (25) suggests slight salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance. (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m. WA experience is moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus melliodora*

Yellow box tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (20)

Eucalyptus microcarpa*

Grey box tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline).

Eucalyptus mimica

  small tree

Mallet from Newdegate area (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus moluccana*

Grey box tree

(2). (20) suggests highly tolerant.

Eucalyptus platycorys

Boorabbin mallee small tree

(8) Sensitive to waterlogging (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus platypus subsp.platypus

Round-leaved moort small tree

May in the past have been confused with E. platypus and E. utilis (syn. E. platypus var. heterophylla

Eucalyptus polybractea*

Blue mallee tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline)

Eucalyptus rigens

Saltlake mallee tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus robusta*

Swamp mahogany tree

(2) (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline) (9, 17, 20)

Eucalyptus rudis

Flooded gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m.

Eucalyptus salicola

Salt gum tree

(2) (23) suggests low waterlogging tolerance, and very high tolerance of salinity.

Eucalyptus stricklandii

Strickland's gum tree

(25) low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus tereticornis*

Forest red gum tree

(2). (22) Suggests higher tolerance. Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus utilis syn. E. platypus var. heterophylla

Coastal moort small tree

(2) Suggests tolerance to very saline conditions. (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (9) found tolerance >3000 mS/m. Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus varia subsp. salsuginosa

  small tree

Mallee form of E. gardneri (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus vegrandis

  tree

Syn E. spathulata subsp. grandiflora (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). (5) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m.

Eucalyptus wandoo

Wandoo tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (10). Seed source important. (9) found tolerance less than 1000 mS/m.  Other species looking like and also called 'wandoo' have different tolerance to salinity.

Eucalyptus xanthonema

Yellow-flowered mallee small tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Festuca arundinacea*

Tall fescue perennial grass

(19, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Hordeum vulgare*

Barley 6-row annual grass

(23, 24). Some references suggest much higher tolerances, but field measurements do not.

Lagunaria patersonii*

Norfolk Island hibiscus shrub or tree

(6, 13) Coastal.

Lolium perenne*

Perennial ryegrass grass

(22)

Maireana brevifolia

Small leaf bluebush herbaceous shrub

(21). (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 600–1100 mS/m

Melaleuca acuminata

Broombush shrub

(11)

Melaleuca armillaris*

Bracelet honey myrtle shrub

(2, 17) Needs well drained site. (25) suggests low salinity tolerance and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca bracteata

River teatree shrub

(2)

Melaleuca brevifolia

Mallee honey myrtle shrub

(11). (25) suggests higher salt tolerance, and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca dealbata

    (32) records good growth at 400–800 mS/m ECe

Melaleuca ericifolia*

Swamp paperbark  

(2, 17). (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and high waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca lateriflora

   

(2, 5) Grows with M. uncinata and others.

Melaleuca linariifolia*

Narrow-leaved paperbark  

(2)

Melaleuca microphylla

   

(13)

Melaleuca quinquinervia*

Five-veined paperbark  

(2)

Melaleuca rhaphiophylla

Swamp paperbark tree

(5) suggests EM38 of 100–150mS/m.

Melaleuca styphelioides*

Prickly-leaved paperbark  

(2, 17)

Melaleuca uncinata

Broombush shrub

(2) Highly variable taxon. Variable tolerance. (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eremophila deserti syn. Myoporum desertii

Turkey bush  

(13)

Myoporum insulare

Blueberry tree, boobialla  

(6)

Pinus pinaster*

Maritime pine tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). Low waterlogging tolerance. Slight waterlogging tolerance.

Pinus radiata*

Monterey pine, radiata pine tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). Low waterlogging tolerance.

Pittosporum phillyreoides

Native apricot shrub or small tree

(6). (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance. WA experience is moderate waterloggin tolerance.

Sorghum bicolor*

Sorghum annual grass Suggest soil threshold of ECe 680 mS/m with rapid productivity fall-off with increasing salinity. Australian field measurments (ex NDSP) suggest much lower tolerance with ECe 200–300 mS/m.

Thinopyrum ponticum* syn. T. elongatum

Tall wheat grass perennial grass

(19, 21, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance.Tolerance may be higher (25)

Trifolium michelianum*

Balansa clover annual legume

(19) Syn. T. balansae. Highly tolerant of waterlogging. Some references suggest much higher tolerance (24)

Trifolium resupinatum*

Persian clover anual legume

(24) Tolerance may be higher.

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Table 4 Plants tolerant of slightly saline sites (ECe 200–400 mS/m)

Table 4 Plants tolerant of slightly saline sites (ECe 200–400mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments

Acacia acuminata

Jam small tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (25) suggests slight to moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance.

Acacia implexa*

Hickory wattle  

(2)

Acacia iteaphylla*

Flinder's Range wattle  

(2)

Acacia longifolia*

Sydney golden wattle  

(2)

Acacia mearnsii*

Late black wattle  

(2) Weed spp. in Western Australia

Acacia melanoxylon*

Tasmanian blackwood tree

(2)

Avena sativa*

Oats  

(24). Some references suggest higher tolerance (25)

Brassica napus*

Canola (oilseed rape)  

(24). Tolerance is toward the top of this category. (25) suggests much higher salt tolerance, with a threshold up to 1100 mS/m. Other references also indicate high salt tolerance, with variation between varieties and hybrids.

Callistemon salignus

Willow bottlebrush  

 

Casuarina littoralis

River sheoak  

(7)

Allocasuarina verticillata* (Syn. Casuarina stricta)

Drooping sheoak  

(7)

Allocasuarina torulosa* (Syn. Casuarina torulosa)

   

(7)

Chloris gayana*

Rhodes grass  

(24)

Corymbia citriodora* subsp. variegata

Lemon scented gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Corymbia maculata*

Spotted gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Cynodon dactylon*

Couch perennial grass

(19)

Eucalyptus aggregata*

Black gum  

(2, 19)

Eucalyptus bicostata*

Eurabbie  

(2)

Eucalyptus botryoides*

Southern mahogany  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (25). Moderate waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus brockwayi

Dundas mahogany  

(2). (14) suggests moderate tolerance.

Eucalyptus calycogona subsp. calycogona

   

(14) (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus camphora*

Swamp gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus celastroides

Mirret, mealy blackbutt  

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus cinerea*

Argyle apple  

(2)

Eucalyptus cladocalyx*

Sugar gum  

(2). (5) EM38 of 50–100 mS/m.

Eucalyptus clelandiorum

Cleland's blackbutt  

(10) Suggests higher tolerance.

Eucalyptus concinna

Victoria Desert mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus conferruminata

Bald Island marlock  

(15)

Eucalyptus coolabah

   

(2) This group is being revised. Includes E. microtheca.

Eucalyptus cornuta

Yate  

(2). (15) Suggests no tolerance of salt.

Eucalyptus crenulata*

Victorian silver gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus diversifolia

Soap mallee, coastal mallee  

(25). Low waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus elata*

River peppermint  

(2)

Eucalyptus flocktoniae

Merrit  

(14, 15) Sensitive to waterlogging.

Eucalyptus forrestiana

Fuschia mallee  

(14)

Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus*

Blue gum  

(2). Western Australian experience is that tolerance is lower. (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). And (22) suggests less than ECe 200 mS/m - measured in commercial field plantings .

Eucalyptus grandis*

Rose gum  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (22) suggests moderate tolerance.

Eucalyptus griffithsii

Griffith's grey gum  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus horistes syn. E. hypochlamydea subsp. ecdysiastes

   

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus longicornis

Red morrell  

(14)

Eucalyptus macrandra

Long-flowered marlock  

(6, 14,15)

Eucalyptus megacornuta

Warted yate  

 

Eucalyptus merrickiae

Goblet mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus ovata*

Swamp gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus ovularis

Small-fruited mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus saligna*

Sydney blue gum  

(2) (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Eucalyptus salmonophloia*

Salmon gum  

(9) Suggests moderate tolerance. (14). (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m.

Eucalyptus sideroxylon*

Red ironbark  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (17) suggests moderate tolerance. Needs well drained site.

Eucalyptus torquata

Coral gum  

(14, 15)

Eucalyptus tricarpa*

Three fruited red ironbark  

(2)

Eucalyptus viminalis*

Manna gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus yilgarnensis

Yorrell  

 

Hordeum vulgare*

 

   

Lupinus angustifolium*

Narrow-leaf lupin  

(24). Tolerance is toward the bottom of this range. Sensitive to waterlogging.

Medicago polymorpha subsp. brevispina*

Burr medic annual legume

(24)

Medicago sativa*

Lucerne (alfalfa) perennial legume

(25). Some reports of lower tolerance (24)

Melaleuca nesophila

Mindiyed, western honey myrtle  

(5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (25) suggests moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca preissiana

Moonah  

(5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline).

Cenchrus clandestinus* syn. Pennisetum clandestinum

Kikuyu perennial grass

(24) Tolerance affected by waterlogging

Phalaris aquatica*

Phalaris  

(19, 23, 24) Tolerance in the high end of this class

Pinus brutia*

Calabrian pine  

 (2)

Schinus areira* syn. S. molle var. areira

Pepper tree  

(13)

Trifolium alexandrinum*

Berseem clover  

(24)

Trifolium fragiferum

Strawberry clover annual legume

(19, 23) High waterlogging tolerance. Best on summer moisture.

Trifolium repens*

White clover  

(22, 23). Waterlogging reduces salinity tolerance

Triticum aestivum*

Wheat annual grass

(22) Some references suggest higher tolerance (23)

Vicia faba*

Faba beans  

(22). Moderate to good waterlogging tolerance.

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Table 5 Plants tolerant of non-saline sites (ECe < 200 mS/m)

Table 5 Plants tolerant of non-saline sites (ECe < 200mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments.

Acacia microbotrya

Manna wattle shrub or small tree

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Agonis flexuosa

WA peppermint, weeping peppermint tree

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Chamaecytisus proliferus*

Tagasaste shrub

(24). Very sensitive to waterlogging.

Cicer arietinum*

Chickpeas  

(24). Sensitive to salinity. Sensitive to waterlogging.

Dactylis glomerata*

Cocksfoot  

(24)

Eucalyptus accedens

Powderbark wandoo  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Eucalyptus polyanthemos*

Red box  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Eucalyptus talyuberlup

Pretty yate  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Medicago littoralis*

Strand medic  

(24)

Medicago murex*

Murex medic  

(24)

Medicago truncatula*

Barrel medic  

(24) Some report higher tolerance (23)

Ornithopus compressus*

Yellow serradella  

(24)

Pisum sativum*

Field peas  

(23, 24). Sensitive to waterlogging.

Trifolium hirtum*

Rose clover  

(24)

Trifolium subteranneum*

Subterraneum clover  

(24)

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References

  1. Runciman, HV & Malcolm, CV 1989, ‘Forage shrubs and grasses for revegetating saltland’, Bulletin 4153, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth. (Includes information on saltbushes, bluebush, quail brush, samphire, puccinelia and salt water couch).
  2. Marcar NE, Crawford DF 2004, Trees for saline landscapes, Canberra, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia, 235 pp.
  3. Ferdowsian, R and Greenham, KJ 1992, ‘Integrated catchment management: Upper Denmark Catchment’, Technical Report 130, Division of Resource Management, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth
  4. van der Moezel,PG & Bell, DT 1987, ‘Comparative seedling salt tolerance of several Eucalyptus and Melaleuca species from Western Australia’, Australian Forestry Research 17, pp. 151–158.
  5. Bennett, D & George, R 2002, EM38 salt tolerance limits for some common farm forestry, revegetation, crop and pasture species for the medium to high rainfall country, Master Tree Growers' Course Notes, Western Australia, Northam, delivered March 2002.
  6. Australian Plant Study Group, 1990, Grow What Where, Viking O'Neil, Penguin Books, Victoria, South Yarra.
  7. El-Lakanay, MH & Luard, EJ 1982, ‘Comparative salt tolerance of selected Casuarina species’, Australian Forestry Research, no. 13, pp. 11–20.
  8. van der Moezel, PG, Watson, LE, Pearce-Pinto, GVN & Bell, DT 1988, ‘The response of six Eucalyptus species and Casuarina obesa to the combined effect of salinity and waterlogging’, Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, no. 15, pp. 465–474
  9. Pepper, RG & Craig, GF 1986, ‘Resistance of selected Eucalyptus species to soil salinity in Western Australia’, Journal of Applied Ecology, no. 23, pp. 977–987.
  10. Blake, TJ 1981, ‘Salt tolerance of Eucalyptus species grown in saline solution culture’, Australian Forestry Research, no. 11, pp. 179–183
  11. Anon 1994, The tree grower's information kit, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
  12. Craig, GF, Bell, DT & Atkins, CA 1990, ‘Response to salt and waterlogging stress of ten taxa of Acacia selected from naturally saline areas of Western Australia’, Australian Journal of Botany, no. 38, pp. 619–630.
  13. South Australian Woods and Forests 1984, Catalogue of plants for sale’, No 20 in a Series, South Australia, Adelaide.
  14. Chippendale, GM 1973, Eucalypts of the Western Australian goldfields and the adjacent wheatbelt, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  15. Elliot, WR and Jones, DL 1986, Encyclopaedia of Australian plants suitable for cultivation Eu–Go, vol. 4. Lothian, Melbourne.
  16. Ismail, S, Malcolm, CV & Ahmad, R 1990, A bibliography of forage halophytes and trees for salt-affected land: Their uses, culture and physiology, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
  17. Race, D (ed.) 1993, Agroforestry: Trees for productive farming, Chapters 17,19, AgMedia, Melbourne Victoria.
  18. Hoy NT, Gale MJ & Walsh KB 1994, ‘Revegetation of a scalded saline discharge zone in central Queensland: 1. Selection of tree species and evaluation of an establishment technique’, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, no. 34, pp. 765–776.
  19. Sudmeyer RA, Saunders C, Maling I & Clark T 1994, ‘Perennial pastures: For areas receiving less than 800 mm annual rainfall’, Bulletin 4253, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth.
  20. Dunn GM, Taylor DW, Nester MR, & Beetson TB 1994, ‘Performance of twelve selected Australian tree species on a saline site in southeast Queensland’, Forest Ecology and Management, no. 70, pp. 255–264
  21. Barrett-Lennard, EG & Malcolm CV 1995, ‘Saltland pastures in Australia’, Bulletin 4312, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth.
  22. Barson, M & Barrett-Lennard, E 1995, ‘Productive use and rehabilitation of Australia's saline lands’, Australian Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 33–37.
  23. Taylor, S 1993, Dryland Salinity: Introductory Extension Notes, Second Edition, Department of Conservation and Land Management, NSW.
  24. Moore, G 1998, ‘Soilguide: A handbook for understanding and managing agricultural soils’, Bulletin 4343, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth.
  25. Bulman, Peter 1995, Farmtree$ for the Mount Lofty Ranges: A Regional Agroforestry Handbook, Primary Industries, South Australia, Adelaide.
  26. Black RF 1960, ‘Effects of NaCl on the ion uptake and growth of Atriplex vesicaria Heward’, Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, no. 13, pp. 249–266.
  27. Francois, LE 1994a, Growth, seed yield, and oil content of canola grown under saline conditions, Agronomy Journal, no. 86, pp. 233–237.
  28. Water and Rivers Commission 2001, 'Riparian zone revegetation in the Avon catchment', Water Notes no. 24, Water and Rivers Commission, Western Australia, Perth.
  29. Greening Australia 2010, Florabank: list of factsheets
  30. Qureshi, RH & Barrett-Lennard, EG 1998, Saline Agriculture for Irrigated Land in Pakistan: A handbook, ACIAR, Australia, Canberra
  31. Barrett-Lennard, EG, Bennett, SJ, Altman, M 2013, 'Survival and growth of perennial halophytes on saltland in a Mediterranean environment is affected by depth to watertable in summer as well as subsoil salinity', Crop and Pasture Science no. 64, pp. 123–136.
  32. House, S, Nester, M, Taylor, D, King, J and Hinchley, D, 1998, Selecting trees for the rehabilitation od saline sites in south-east Queensland, Technical Paper 52, Department of Primary Industry Queensland

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Contact information

David Bicknell
+61 (0)8 9881 0228
John Simons
+61 (0)8 9083 1128