Salinity tolerance of plants for agriculture and revegetation in Western Australia

Page last updated: Wednesday, 27 September 2023 - 1:45pm

Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review.

Plant tolerance of salinity in the tables below are a guide only. The references here estimate salt and waterlogging tolerance in different ways, and this makes comparisons of tolerance difficult. The 'best' information in the tables is based on measurement of soil salinity around plant roots growing in the field – however, this type of information is rare.

The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development recommends using local grower and nursery experience, and specialist advice before investing in salt tolerant species.

Please note

The information in these tables is only a guide – the information is drawn from many references, and only some of them are refereed technical articles based on data. Also, the measures of salinity and waterlogging are sometimes in situations unlikely to be experienced in the field.

The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development recommends that any dryland salinity management is part of a whole farm, and preferably a whole catchment, water management plan.

What is salinity tolerance?

The short answer is, the tolerance of a plant to levels of salt in the soil water. However, it can get complicated, as salts will affect plants in different ways, based on many factors:

Some of the references below estimate salt tolerance from salinity of water used to irrigate seedlings, and this makes comparison with soil salinity difficult. The 'best' information in the tables is based on measurement of soil salinity around plants growing in the field, however, this type of information is rare.

What is waterlogging tolerance?

The short answer is, the tolerance of a plant to saturated soil in the root zone. However, the term commonly covers flooding, inundation, and ponding in addition to a saturated root zone. Waterlogging result from rising watertables, flooding, and heavy rainfall or irrigation where surface infiltration is greater than the subsoil drainage.

Waterlogging will affect plants in dufferent ways, based on many factors:

  • the period of waterlogging
  • whether the soil water is stagnant or moving
  • growth stage of the plant
  • nutrient status of the plant.

See Diagnosing waterlogging in south-west Western Australia for more information.

Measuring salinity

All measurements are expressed as electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste (ECe) unless stated otherwise. All salinity units are in milliSiemens per meter (mS/m). See Measuring salinity for the reason that this measure and units are use, and for more information and conversion to other measures and units. 

We recommend that you check each reference for the actual salinity measure and units recorded against a species.

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Plants in this list

Some exotic (not Australian) tree and shrub species are included in the lists, but these are not recommended for revegetation intended to have natural diversity values in Western Australia. Some of the exotic species and species from other regions of Australia (marked with *) are known environmental weeds.

For most plants in these lists, links from the proper names take you to FloraBase, the database of Western Australian flora. Where FloraBase does not contain the species, the links go to other credible sites.

Categories of salinity tolerance used in these tables

Table 1 Plants tolerant of extremely saline sites (ECe >1600 mS/m)

Table 1 Plants tolerant of extremely saline sites (ECe >1600mS/m)

Proper Name
(links to FloraBase)

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments

Acacia ampliceps

salt wattle shrub (2) (32) records good performance to >2000 mS/m ECe

Acacia cyclops

coastal wattle shrub

Severe to extreme tolerance (2, 3, 12) Sensitive to waterlogging.

Acacia stenophylla

river coobah, river myall  

(2, 14, 17) (22) Gives range of 1500–2500 mS/m. (25) suggests moderate or very salt tolerant and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Atriplex amnicola

river saltbush  shrub

(21, 22, 24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils, and up to 3800 mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Reputed to be slightly more salt tolerant, and more waterlogging tolerant than other Atriplex species. (25) Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 700–1100 mS/m. Halophyte

Atriplex bunburyana

silver saltbush shrub

(24). Sensitive to waterlogging. Halophyte.

Atriplex cinerea

grey saltbush shrub

(21) Moderate waterlogging tolerance (24). (25) says moderate waterlogging tolerance. Halophyte.

Atriplex lentiformis

quailbrush shrub

(22) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils, and up to 3800  mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Low waterlogging tolerance. Halophyte.

Atriplex muelleri

  shrub

(22) Reports tolerance in subtropical and tropical areas of up to 3800 mS/m on medium to heavy clays. Halophyte.

Atriplex nummularia

old man saltbush shrub

(21) Low waterlogging tolerance (24). (25) suggests moderate to very salt tolerant. Halophyte.

Atriplex paludosa

marsh saltbush shrub

Halophyte

Atriplex semibaccata

creeping saltbush herbaceous shrub

(26). Halophyte.

Atriplex undulata*

wavy-leafed saltbush shrub

(22) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils. Moderate waterlogging tolerance(24). (25) Halophyte

Atriplex vesicaria

bladder saltbush shrub

(26) Halophyte

Casuarina glauca*

grey buloke tree

Not native to Western Australia. Can be an aggressive weed, and is not recommended.
(2) in 800–1600 mS/m. (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (8, 17) Wet or dry sites. (18) Gives 50% mortality at EC 1:5 of >400 mS/m. (20). High waterlogging tolerance. (25)

Casuarina obesa

salt sheoak, swamp sheoak

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (8, 9, 20) (27). High waterlogging tolerance. (37)

Frankenia ambita, F. brachyphylla, F. fecunda

   

(15)

Melaleuca halmaturorum

swamp paperbark tree

(4). (2, 14, 15, 17) (22) Gives range of 1500–2500 mS/m. (29). WA observation is that it should be in a less tolerant category (P. White pers. comm.)

Melaleuca lateriflora gorada shrub (2, 45) Can grow with M. atroviridis, M. scalena, M. hamata. WA observations are that this is highly salt and waterlogging tolerant, similar to M. thyoides tolerance.

Melaleuca thyoides

scale-leaf honey myrtle shrub

(2, 4, 12)

Paspalum vaginatum

saltwater couch grass

(19, 24) Very high waterlogging tolerance, low drought tolerance. Needs summer moisture. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 600–1600 mS/m

Puccinellia ciliata

puccinellia perennial grass

(19, 21, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils.

Salicornia spp. (S. quinqueflora)

glasswort, samphire herbaceous shrub

(16) Combined salt and waterlogging tolerance is particularly high. Halophyte.

Sporobolus virginicus

marine couch perennial grass

(16). (24) Reports tolerance to 2500–5000 mS/m on alkaline duplex soils and wet sites.

Tecticornia spp. samphire herbaceous  perennial (1, 16, 21) Combined waterlogging and salt tolerance is particularly high. (31) found that depth to the saline watertable in summer for good growth and survival was 0.7–1.0 m and subsoil ECe of 2700–6500 mS/m.

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Table 2 Plants tolerant of very saline sites (ECe 800–1600 mS/m)

Table 2 Plants tolerant of very saline sites (ECe 800–1600mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

References and comments

Acacia lineolata

dwarf myall

shrub or small tree

(12) Good waterlogging tolerance

Acacia ampliceps

salt wattle

shrub or small tree

(2)

Acacia brumalis

 

 

(3, 12) Sensitive to waterlogging

Acacia cyclops

coastal wattle

shrub or small tree

(2, 3, 12) See 'Extremely' table above.

Acacia ligulata

umbrella bush

 

(14)

Acacia mutabilis subsp. stipulifera

 

 

(12). FloraBase indicates that it is found on slightly saline soils. Not readily available.

Acacia retinodes*

wirilda

 

(2). Waterlogging tolerant.

Acacia salicina

coobah, willow wattle

shrub or small tree

(2, 13) suckers and could be invasive. (25) suggests moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance.

Acacia saligna

golden wreath wattle

shrub or small tree

(2) Puts this into 400–800 mS/m. (3). (6) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (12). Moderate waterlogging tolerance. Variation in provenances. (25)

Casuarina equisetifolia*

horsetail sheoak

tree

(30)

Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. incana*

 

tree

(7). Similar tolerance to Casuarina obesa and Casuarina glauca.

Eucalyptus halophila

salt lake mallee

tree

(2). (4, 16) suggest extremely tolerant. (27) Low waterlogging tolerance.

 

 

   

Eucalyptus kondininensis

Kondinin blackbutt

tree

 

(2). (9, 10) Suggests tolerance in moderate to very saline sites. (14, 15). Low waterloging tolerance. (25)

Eucalyptus occidentalis

flat-topped yate

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 200 mS/m. (9) (14) (15) (17) Wet or dry sites. (22) Range of 1500–2500 mS/m. Very waterlogging tolerant. (25). Provenance variation.

Eucalyptus raveretiana*

 

tree

(2) suggests moderate tolerance. (20) suggests very tolerant or higher..

Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. sargentii

Salt River gum, Sargent's mallee

tree

(34) observes that salinity tolerance is well known in the field.
(2). (6) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (36) found that this species was very salt tolerant, with some variation in provenance tolerance, and quite susceptible to non-saline waterlogging. (9) found tolerance for >3000 mS/m. (14, 15) Moderately waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance. WA observations are that this species is moderately waterlogging tolerant.

Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. onesis

Mortlock River mallee

  (34) suggests revegetation on saline sites based on observed survival where salinity has increased.

Eucalyptus spathulata subsp. spathulata

swamp mallet

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (8, 9, 14). Good waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance. WA observations are that this species is moderately waterlogging tolerant.
Note that Eucalyptus spathulata subsp. onesia (mallee form) may also be in this category).

Hakea preissii

needle bush

shrub or small tree

Often seen on the margins of salt tlakes. Is reported to be moderately tolerant of waterlogging, salt and lakaline soils. Often seen as the shrub or tree layer over Atriplex bunburyana, especially on gypsum dunes adjacent to salt lakes.

Melaleuca cuticularis

swamp paperbark, saltwater paperbark

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of greater than 150 mS/m. (10) suggests extremely tolerant. High waterlogging tolerance. (25)

Melaleuca decussata*

cross-leaf honey myrtle

shrub

(2, 13, 14, 17). Waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance.

Melaleuca hamulosa

 

shrub

(11) (25). WA observation from extensive plantings is that this species has low waterlogging tolerance and moderate salinity tolerance

Melaleuca lanceolata

Rottnest Island tea tree, moonah

shrub

(2, 6, 13, 17). Needs well drained site. (25) suggest low to moderate salinity tolerance. In WA the species is not usually on saline soils, but is tolerant of windblown salt (coastal).

Melaleuca leucadendra

cadjeput, long-leaved paperbark

tree

(2) (32). Waterlogging tolerant. Good growth at 1200–2000 mS/m ECe

Melaleuca squarrosa*

scented paperbark

 

(2)

Melaleuca thyoides

saltlake honey myrtle

shrub

(36) suggests very high tolerance of salt levels and salt plus waterlogging. (35) says 'An easily grown mid storey shrub that is useful on a range of saline waterbodies. Very salt tolerant and moderately waterlogging and drought tolerant.'

Phoenix dactylifera

date palm

  Yaish and Kumar (2015) report tolerances of 900–1280 mS/m. Kharusi et al (2017) report soil tolerances of up to 2400 mS/m. Alhammadi and Kurup (2012) report seedlings surviving up to 1280 mS/m. Cultivars differ in their tolerance of salt level.

Tamarix aphylla

athel pine, tamarisk

shrub or tree

(25). Moderate waterlogging tolerance. Tamarix aphylla is a weed of national (Australian) significance.

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Table 3 Plants tolerant of moderately saline sites (ECe 400–800 mS/m)

Table 3 Plants tolerant of moderately saline sites (ECe 400–800mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

References and comments

Acacia colletioides

spine wattle

Shrub

(12)

Acacia merrallii

Merrall's wattle

 

(12) Sensitive to waterlogging

Acacia pendula*

weeping myall

 

(17)

Acacia prainii

Prain's wattle

 

(12)

Acacia redolens

vanilla wattle

Large shrub

Ravensthorpe source. (3, 12) Tolerance varies with seed source. WA observations are that this species can be very tolerant of saline sites and is waterlogging tolerant.

Allocasuarina leuhmannii*

buloke

tree

(2)

Allocasuarina verticillata*

drooping sheoak

 

(2, 17)

Callistemon paludosis*

river bottlebrush

shrub

(17)

Callistemon phoeniceus

lesser bottlebrush

shrub

(11). WA observations are that this species grows wher there is access to water but may not be waterlogging tolerant. 

Casuarina cristata subsp. cristata*

black oak, belah

shrub or small tree

(2). (7, 17) suggest highly tolerant.

Casuarina cristata subsp. pauper*

belah

shrub or small tree West Australian subsp.

Casuarina cunninghamiana*

river sheoak

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m. (17, 20). Very waterlogging tolerant. (25) suggests moderate salinity tolerance.

Chloris gayana*

Rhodes grass

perennial grass

(19, 22) Field observations in WA suggest higher tolerance than older references. (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 500–1400 mS/m.

Eucalyptus alipes

Hyden mallet

mallet WA observations are that has moderate to high salinity tolerance and may be tolerant of periodic flooding. Suggested as a replacement species for E. mimica, occupies a similar landscape position to E. spathulata

Eucalyptus phenax (syn. E. anceps)

 

mallee

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). Usually on well drained sites.

Eucalyptus angustissima

narrow-leaved mallee

tree

(2) suggests slight tolerance. (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). Needs well drained soils.

Eucalyptus astringens

brown mallet

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 50mS/m (non-saline). (16) Seed source critical. (27). WA observations are that this species can have moderate to low waterlogging tolerance depending on provenance.

Eucalyptus comitae-vallis (Syn. Eucalyptus brachycorys)

Cowcowing mallee, Comet Vale mallee

tree

(9)

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

river red gum

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly-saline) for Lake Albacutya provenance, and 100–150 for other lines. (8). (9) Suggests lower tolerance. (14, 15). (17, 20) Suggests higher tolerance. Provenance critical. (25). High waterlogging tolerance. Note that provenances occur across Australia and vary considerably in tolerance to salt and waterlogging.

Eucalyptus campaspe

silver gimlet

tree

(2). (14) suggests very tolerant of salinity. (25) low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus diptera

two-winged gimlet

tree

(9) Suggest higher tolerance. (25) low waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus famelica

salt mallee

mallee

(2, 5). Moderate waterlogging tolerance. 

Eucalyptus foliosa

 

tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). This rating is from limited WA field observations.

Eucalyptus gomphocephala

tuart

tree

(2). Slight waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests slightly tolerant of salinity, and low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus largiflorens*

black box, river box

tree

(2, 13, 17) Wet or dry sites. (25) suggests slightly salt tolerant and moderately waterlogging tolerant.

 

 

   

Eucalyptus lesouefii

Goldfields blackbutt

tree

(14, 15). WA experience is that this has limited waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus leucoxylon*

South Australian blue gum, yellow gum

tree

(2) 4 named subsp. and highly variable: subsp. leucoxylon, subsp. pruinosa, subsp. stephaniae, subsp. megalocarpa. Provenance critical. (25)

Eucalyptus petiolaris (Syn. Eucalyptus leucoxylon subsp. petiolaris)

Eyre Peninsula blue gum

tree

(15)

Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. lissophloia

smooth barked York gum

mallee

WA observations are that this species might have limited waterlogging tolerance and low to moderate salinity tolerance.

Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba

York gum

tree

(2) suggests slight tolerance. (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline) (9, 14). (25) suggests slight salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance. (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m. WA experience is moderate waterlogging tolerance. (33) says not tolerant waterlogging but some provenances are moderately salt tolerant

Eucalyptus melliodora*

yellow box

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (20)

Eucalyptus microcarpa*

grey box

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline).

Eucalyptus mimica

 

mallet

Mallet from Newdegate area (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). Very small distribution and seed may be hard to source. In the E. spathulata group.

Eucalyptus moluccana*

grey box

tree

(2). (20) suggests highly tolerant.

Eucalyptus orthostemon

 

mallee Commonly observed adjacent to saline drainage lines and depressions and seasonally wet flats (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA).

Eucalyptus platycorys

Boorabbin mallee

large mallee

(8) Sensitive to waterlogging (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA).

Eucalyptus platypus subsp.platypus

round-leaved moort

small tree

May in the past have been confused with E. platypus and E. utilis (syn. E. platypus var. heterophylla

Eucalyptus polybractea*

blue mallee

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline)

Eucalyptus rigens

saltlake mallee

tree

(Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA, from field observations)

Eucalyptus robusta*

swamp mahogany

tree

(2) (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline) (9, 17, 20)

Eucalyptus rudis

flooded gum

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m.

Eucalyptus salicola

salt gum

tree

(2) (23) suggests low waterlogging tolerance, and very high tolerance of salinity.

Eucalyptus stricklandii

Strickland's gum

tree

(25) low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus tereticornis*

forest red gum

tree

(2). (22) Suggests higher tolerance. Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus utilis syn. E. platypus var. heterophylla

coastal moort

small tree

(2) Suggests tolerance to very saline conditions. (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (9) found tolerance >3000 mS/m. Moderate waterlogging tolerance. (25) suggests low waterlogging tolerance.

Eucalyptus varia subsp. salsuginosa

 

mallee

Mallee form of E. gardneri (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). Florabase and (34) refer to salt drainage lines and seasonally wet flats.

Eucalyptus vegrandis subsp. vegrandis

Ongerup mallee

mallee

Syn E. spathulata subsp. grandiflora (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). (5) suggests EM38 of 100–150 mS/m.

Eucalyptus wandoo

wandoo

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (10). Seed source important. (9) found tolerance less than 1000 mS/m.  Other species looking like and also called 'wandoo' have different tolerance to salinity.

Festuca arundinacea*

tall fescue

perennial grass

(19, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Hordeum vulgare*

barley 6-row

annual grass

(23, 24). Some references suggest much higher tolerances, but field measurements do not.

Lagunaria patersonii*

Norfolk Island hibiscus

shrub or tree

(6, 13) Coastal.

Lolium perenne*

perennial ryegrass

grass

(22)

Maireana brevifolia

small leaf bluebush

herbaceous shrub

(21). (31) found that the subsoil ECe (95% confidence interval) associated with ‘good survival’ was 600–1100 mS/m

Melaleuca acuminata

mallee honey myrtle, broombush

shrub

(11). Common on low lying flats which are subject to waterlogging and salinity

Melaleuca armillaris*

bracelet honey myrtle

shrub

(2, 17) Needs well drained site. (25) suggests low salinity tolerance and moderate waterlogging tolerance. WA observations are that it needs well drained sites and very low salinity.

Melaleuca atroviridis

brushwood

large shrub This is the most common form of brushwood in lower lying areas around playa lakes in the wheatbelt which would have been grouped under Melaleuca uncinata

Melaleuca bracteata

river teatree

shrub

(2)

Melaleuca brevifolia

mallee honey myrtle

shrub

(11). (25) suggests higher salt tolerance, and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca dealbata

 

  (32) records good growth at 400–800 mS/m ECe

Melaleuca ericifolia*

swamp paperbark

 

(2, 17). (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and high waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca lateriflora

 

 

(2, 5). Can grow with M. atroviridis, M. scalena, M. hamata. WA observations are that this is highly salt and waterlogging tolerant, similar to M. thyoides tolerance.

Melaleuca linariifolia*

narrow-leaved paperbark

 

(2)

Melaleuca microphylla

 

 

(13)

Melaleuca quinquinervia*

five-veined paperbark

 

(2)

Melaleuca rhaphiophylla

swamp paperbark

tree

(5) suggests EM38 of 100–150mS/m.

Melaleuca styphelioides*

prickly-leaved paperbark

 

(2, 17)

Melaleuca uncinata

broombush

shrub

(2) Highly variable taxon. Variable tolerance. (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Eremophila deserti syn. Myoporum desertii

turkey bush

 

(13)

Myoporum insulare

blueberry tree, boobialla

 

(6)

Pinus pinaster*

maritime pine

tree

(2). (6) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). Low waterlogging tolerance. Slight waterlogging tolerance.

Pinus radiata*

Monterey pine, radiata pine

tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). Low waterlogging tolerance.

Pittosporum angustifolia (syn. P. phillyreoides)

native apricot

shrub or small tree

(6). (25) suggests low to moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance. WA experience is moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Sorghum bicolor*

sorghum

annual grass Suggest soil threshold of ECe 680 mS/m with rapid productivity fall-off with increasing salinity. Australian field measurements (ex NDSP) suggest much lower tolerance with ECe 200–300 mS/m.

Thinopyrum ponticum* syn. T. elongatum

tall wheat grass

perennial grass

(19, 21, 24) Moderate waterlogging tolerance.Tolerance may be higher (25)

Trifolium michelianum*

balansa clover

annual legume

(19) Syn. T. balansae. Highly tolerant of waterlogging. Some references suggest much higher tolerance (24)

Trifolium resupinatum*

Persian clover

anual legume

(24) Tolerance may be higher.

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Table 4 Plants tolerant of slightly saline sites (ECe 200–400 mS/m)

Table 4 Plants tolerant of slightly saline sites (ECe 200–400mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments

Acacia acuminata

jam small tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (25) suggests slight to moderate salinity tolerance and low waterlogging tolerance.

Acacia implexa*

hickory wattle  

(2)

Acacia iteaphylla*

Flinder's Range wattle  

(2). Weed species in Western Australia

Acacia longifolia*

Sydney golden wattle  

(2) Weed species in Western Australia

Acacia mearnsii*

late black wattle  

(2) Weed species in Western Australia

Acacia melanoxylon*

Tasmanian blackwood tree

(2) Weed species in Western Australia

Avena sativa*

oats  

(24). Some references suggest higher tolerance (25)

Brassica napus*

canola (oilseed rape)  

(24). Tolerance is toward the top of this category. (25) suggests much higher salt tolerance, with a threshold up to 1100 mS/m. Other references also indicate high salt tolerance, with variation between varieties and hybrids.

Callistemon salignus

willow bottlebrush  

 

Casuarina littoralis

river sheoak  

(7)

Allocasuarina verticillata* (Syn. Casuarina stricta)

drooping sheoak  

(7)

Allocasuarina torulosa* (Syn. Casuarina torulosa)

   

(7)

Chloris gayana*

Rhodes grass  

(24)

Corymbia citriodora* subsp. variegata

lemon scented gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Corymbia maculata*

spotted gum tree

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Cynodon dactylon*

couch perennial grass

(19)

Eucalyptus aggregata*

black gum  

(2, 19)

Eucalyptus bicostata*

eurabbie  

(2)

Eucalyptus botryoides*

southern mahogany  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (25). Moderate waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus brockwayi

Dundas mahogany  

(2). (14) suggests moderate tolerance.

Eucalyptus calycogona subsp. calycogona

   

(14) Field observations indicate slight waterlogging and salt tolerance (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus camphora*

swamp gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus celastroides

mirret, mealy blackbutt  

Field observations indicate slight waterlogging and salt tolerance (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus cinerea*

argyle apple  

(2)

Eucalyptus cladocalyx*

sugar gum  

(2). (5) EM38 of 50–100 mS/m.

Eucalyptus clelandiorum

Cleland's blackbutt  

(10) Suggests higher tolerance.

Eucalyptus concinna

Victoria Desert mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus conferruminata

Bald Island marlock  

(15)

Eucalyptus coolabah

   

(2) This group is being revised. Includes E. microtheca.

Eucalyptus cornuta

yate  

(2). (15) Suggests no tolerance of salt. (37) suggests low level of salt tolerance

Eucalyptus crenulata*

Victorian silver gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus diversifolia

soap mallee, coastal mallee  

(25). Low waterlogging tolerance

Eucalyptus elata*

river peppermint  

(2)

Eucalyptus flocktoniae

merrit  

(14, 15) Sensitive to waterlogging. These references might have been for E. urna and both are called merrit.

Eucalyptus forrestiana

fuschia mallee  

(14)

Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus*

blue gum  

(2). Western Australian experience is that tolerance is lower. (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). And (22) suggests less than ECe 200 mS/m - measured in commercial field plantings .

Eucalyptus grandis*

rose gum  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (22) suggests moderate tolerance.

Eucalyptus griffithsii

Griffith's grey gum  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus horistes syn. E. hypochlamydea subsp. ecdysiastes

   

Proper identification and taxonomic change make this complicated (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus leptocalyx Hopetoun mallee mallee WA observation is that this has low salinity tolerance

Eucalyptus longicornis

red morrell  

(14)

Eucalyptus macrandra

long-flowered marlock  

(6, 14,15)

Eucalyptus merrickiae

goblet mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus myriadena small-fruited gum   (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA). (38)

Eucalyptus ovata*

swamp gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus ovularis

small-fruited mallee  

(14,15)

Eucalyptus saligna*

Sydney blue gum  

(2) (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline).

Eucalyptus salmonophloia*

salmon gum  

(9) Suggests moderate tolerance. (14). (9) found tolerance to <1000 mS/m.

Eucalyptus sideroxylon*

red ironbark  

(2). (5) suggests EM38 of less than 50 mS/m (non-saline). (17) suggests moderate tolerance. Needs well drained site.

Eucalyptus torquata

coral gum  

(14, 15)

Eucalyptus tricarpa*

three fruited red ironbark  

(2)

Eucalyptus viminalis*

manna gum  

(2)

Eucalyptus xanthonema yellow-flowered mallee, Needilup mallee mallee (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Eucalyptus yilgarnensis

yorrell  

(38) Grows in saline fine textured loams and clays on valley floors

Hordeum vulgare*

 

   

Lupinus angustifolium*

narrow-leaf lupin  

(24). Tolerance is toward the bottom of this range. Sensitive to waterlogging.

Medicago polymorpha subsp. brevispina*

burr medic annual legume

(24)

Medicago sativa*

lucerne (alfalfa) perennial legume

(25). Some reports of lower tolerance (24)

Melaleuca acuminata mallee honey myrtle, broombush shrub (11). Common on low lying flats which are subject to waterlogging and salinity
Melaleuca adenostyla   shrub FloraBase – Saline floodways & depressions. Moderate waterlogging and salt tolerance from field observations (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA)

Melaleuca nesophila

mindiyed, western honey myrtle  

(5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline). (25) suggests moderate waterlogging tolerance.

Melaleuca preissiana

moonah  

(5) suggests EM38 of 50–100 mS/m (slightly saline).

Melaleuca strobophylla     Moderate salt and high waterlogging tolerance (Personal Communication. Peter White, Conservation and Land Management, Narrogin WA).

Cenchrus clandestinus* syn. Pennisetum clandestinum

kikuyu perennial grass

(24) Tolerance affected by waterlogging

Phalaris aquatica*

phalaris  

(19, 23, 24) Tolerance in the high end of this class

Pinus brutia*

Calabrian pine  

 (2)

Schinus molle var. areira

pepper tree  

(13)

Trifolium alexandrinum*

Berseem clover  

(24)

Trifolium fragiferum

strawberry clover annual legume

(19, 23) High waterlogging tolerance. Best on summer moisture.

Trifolium repens*

white clover  

(22, 23). Waterlogging reduces salinity tolerance

Triticum aestivum*

wheat annual grass

(22) Some references suggest higher tolerance (23)

Vicia faba*

faba beans  

(22). Moderate to good waterlogging tolerance.

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Table 5 Plants tolerant of non-saline sites (ECe < 200 mS/m)

Table 5 Plants tolerant of non-saline sites (ECe < 200mS/m)

Proper name

Common name Growth habit

Reference/s and comments.

Acacia microbotrya

manna wattle

shrub or small tree

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Agonis flexuosa

WA peppermint, weeping peppermint tree

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Chamaecytisus proliferus*

tagasaste shrub

(24). Very sensitive to waterlogging.

Cicer arietinum*

chickpeas  

(24). Sensitive to salinity. Sensitive to waterlogging.

Dactylis glomerata*

cocksfoot  

(24)

Eucalyptus accedens

powderbark wandoo  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Eucalyptus polyanthemos*

red box  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Eucalyptus talyuberlup

pretty yate  

(5) EM38 of less than 50 mS/m.

Medicago littoralis*

strand medic  

(24)

Medicago murex*

murex medic  

(24)

Medicago truncatula*

barrel medic  

(24) Some report higher tolerance (23)

Ornithopus compressus*

yellow serradella  

(24)

Pisum sativum*

field peas  

(23, 24). Sensitive to waterlogging.

Trifolium hirtum*

rose clover  

(24)

Trifolium subteranneum*

subterranean clover  

(24)

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References

  1. Runciman, HV & Malcolm, CV 1989, ‘Forage shrubs and grasses for revegetating saltland’, Bulletin 4153, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth. (Includes information on saltbushes, bluebush, quail brush, samphire, puccinelia and salt water couch).
  2. Marcar NE, Crawford DF 2004, Trees for saline landscapes, Canberra, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia, 235 pp.
  3. Ferdowsian, R and Greenham, KJ 1992, ‘Integrated catchment management: Upper Denmark Catchment’, Technical Report 130, Division of Resource Management, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Perth
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Contact information

David Bicknell
+61 (0)8 9881 0228
John Simons
+61 (0)8 9083 1128