Raised beds are a long-term option for waterlogged sites and increasing crop yield on target areas. The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development recommends that raised beds are part of a whole-farm water and salinity management program.

Waterlogging causes significant reductions in plant growth in some years and some environments in the high rainfall (greater than 600 mm annual rainfall) areas of South West Western Australia.

Powdery mildew is a fungal leaf disease that reduces yield and grain quality in susceptible wheat varieties. It has multiple, fast life cycles in a growing season and can be very hard to control once it is established, strategies are outlined below to limit early infection.

Frost damage to braocacre crops is a significant annual production constraint for localised parts of the Western Australian wheatbelt. Different crops will show varying symptoms and be susceptible at a range of growth stages.

Wheat is highly susceptible to frost damage between ear emergence and flowering – often termed reproductive frost.

Frost occurs on clear nights in early spring when the air temperature drops to 2°C or less. Crop damage from frost may occur at any stage of development but is most damaging at or around flowering.

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