Spring

Cereal smut and bunt diseases are caused by fungi which parasitise the host plant and produce masses of soot-like spores in the leaves, grains or ears. These fungi are damaging pathogens of cereal crops, reducing yield and quality of harvested grain.

Preventing weed seed set provides an opportunity to control weed seed set in the pasture, late fallow, late stubble and in-crop phases.

This management strategy provides an opportunity to control weed seed set in the pasture and during harvest. It physically removes viable seed from the paddock by collecting weed seed and grazing crop residues.

Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is highly competitive in crops and can cause a yield loss of 10-90%.

Permanent raised beds are a practical and economic means of managing some waterlogged sites in wetter areas of the Western Australian grainbelt. Raised beds allow excess water to drain out of the beds (horizontal drainage) into open collector drains which then discharge off the paddock.

Frost risk occurs virtually every year across southern and eastern agricultural regions. Actual occurrence of frost is determined by location and landscape factors as well as climate.

Waterlogging causes soil structure collapse in sodic soils, because the clay particles holding soil particles together disperse.

Powdery mildew is a fungal leaf disease that reduces yield and grain quality in susceptible wheat varieties. It has multiple, fast life cycles in a growing season and can be very hard to control once it is established, so strategies are outlined below to avoid or treat early infection.

Spring frosts occasionally cause drastic reductions in crop yields in localised parts of the Western Australian wheatbelt. Different crops will show varying symptoms and be susceptible at a range of growth stages.

Frost occurs on clear nights in early spring when the air temperature drops to 2°C or less. Crop damage from frost may occur at any stage of development but is most damaging at or around flowering.

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