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Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is normally produced by bacteria in the rumen of cattle and sheep on well-balanced roughage diets.

Arthritis means inflammation in one or more joints. In sheep, it is usually the result of bacterial infection.

Photosensitisation is inflammation of the skin, and occasionally the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye.

Pulpy kidney (enterotoxaemia) is a disease of sheep, goats and cattle.

Scabby mouth is a viral disease of sheep and goats that causes scabs and pustules, usually around the mouth and face of affected animals.

Salmonellosis of sheep is an infectious bacterial disease causing illness and death. It results from proliferation of salmonella bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs.

The National TSE Surveillance Program (NTSESP) conducts surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease) in cattle and scrapie in sheep.

The National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) monitors the distribution of economically important insect-borne viruses of livestock and their vectors.

Australia is free of scrapie, which is a fatal, progressive, degenerative disease of the central nervous system of sheep and goats.

Ovine campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease of breeding ewes causing abortion in late pregnancy. It is caused by the bacteria Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus.

All ruminants (including sheep, cattle and goats) require cobalt in their diet for the synthesis of vitamin B12.

Copper is an essential trace element for animals needed for body, bone and wool growth, pigmentation, healthy nerve fibres and white blood cell function.

There are two main forms of footrot in sheep and goats: virulent and benign. Both forms are caused by the bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus.

Pregnancy toxaemia and hypocalcaemia affect lambing ewe flocks and have similar signs but different causes.

Eperythrozoonosis is a disease in sheep and goats caused by the bacterium mycoplasma ovis (formerly known as eperythrozoon ovis).

Slender iceplant, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, is a small, succulent, winter-growing annual weed, most common in the eastern Wheatbelt.

Ovine brucellosis is a reproductive disease that can affect all breeds of sheep.

There are multiple possible causes of both infertility and abortion in ewes, but making a definitive diagnosis is often difficult. Some diseases which are exotic to Australia can cause abortions.

Anthrax is a bacterial disease of animals, most commonly seen in cattle, sheep and goats.

The following resources have been produced by the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (DPIRD) to assist veterinarians in selecting and preparing samples and conducting livesto