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Nitrous oxide, a highly active greenhouse gas, is released from pastures and crops using nitrogen fertilisers.

Spreading clay on light, sandy soils helps to increase soil water holding capacity, retain nutrients and overcome water repellence.

Pastures that reduce methane emissions can be categorised into high quality grasses and legumes, and plants containing secondary metabolites such as tannins.

Feed intake and methane emissions are influenced by the digestibility of the pasture and the concentration of plant secondary compounds such as tannins.

The aim of carbon farming is to sequester more carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as part of Australia's response to climate change.