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Water repellence results in uneven wetting of soil in autumn which can result in patchy and staggered crop and pasture emergence. Sandy soils are particularly susceptible.
Lupin species were present in Western Australia as early as the 1850s. They initially spread on uncultivated land and were thought to have little value.
Lupins are a critical component of a uniquely Western Australian farming system, the wheat:lupin rotation.
Wheat is highly susceptible to frost damage between ear emergence and flowering – often termed reproductive frost.
Brome grass (Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus) is one of the most competitive grass weeds in wheat.
Harvesting crops on raised beds differs from harvesting on normal seedbeds only in terms of the constraints imposed by tracking the harvesting equipment in furrows if so desired.
Subsurface compaction is a widespread constraint in Western Australian cropping areas.
The life cycle of lupin from germination through to seed ripeness can be divided into six clearly definable stages.
Some biological processes can impact on the severity and expression of soil water repellence. Certain soil microbes can degrade and break down the waxes that cause soil water repellence.
Banded wetting agents can make dry furrow sowing of water repellent soils more reliable.