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Claying involves adding and incorporating clay-rich subsoil into water repellent topsoil to overcome the repellence.
Frost risk occurs virtually every year across southern and eastern agricultural regions. Actual occurrence of frost is determined by location and landscape factors as well as climate.
Waterlogging causes significant reductions in plant growth in some years and some environments in the high rainfall (greater than 600 mm annual rainfall) areas of South West Western Australia.
Herbicides can be applied by a variety of means including boom sprayers, aerial spraying, misters, blanket wipers, rope wick applicators, weed seekers and back-pack sprayers.
Waterlogging is a common problem in the agricultural soils of south-west Western Australia in the wetter months of winter.
Waterlogging in the higher rainfall areas (more than 450 mm annual rainfall) of south-west Western Australian crops and pastures is a common cause of reduced plant growth in winter, especially on d
Permanent raised beds are a practical and economic means of managing some waterlogged sites in wetter areas of the Western Australian grainbelt.
In Western Australia, competition from 7-90 capeweed plants per square metre in a wheat crop can reduce crop yield by 28-44% and net return by 25-76%.
The most accurate way to estimate the weed population of a paddock is to count the number of plants in an area of known size at a number of locations.