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A range of species of Epiphyas fruit moths occurs in WA. The most abundant are light brown apple moth, E. postvittana and 'western fruit moth' E. pulla.
Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) that has been renamed Turnip Yellows virus (TuYV) is an aphid-borne virus that causes yield and quality losses in canola. It also infects other crop and pasture s
Manganese deficiency usually has little effect on vegetative growth but can substantially reduce grain yield ('split seed').
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae)is a fungal foliar disease of oats that can cause up to 90% yield loss and also reduces grain quality in susceptible varieties.
Septoria avenae blotch is the most common oat disease in Western Australia. It occurs throughout the cereal growing areas, and is most severe in the high rainfall areas.
Loose smut (Ustilago avenae) and covered smut (Ustilago hordei) of oats are both externally seed- borne diseases with similar symptoms which are difficult to distinguish in the fi
Of the pulses, field peas are more vulerable to frost due to thin pod walls and exposure of flowers to frost.
Oats are more susceptible to zinc (Zn) deficiency than wheat or barley.
Waterlogging and salinity often occur together. Oats are very waterlogging tolerant but are more susceptible to salinity damage than wheat and barley.