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Adult and nymph aphids suck sap with large populations limiting grain yield and size, especially winter and spring infestations.
Waterlogging causes significant reductions in plant growth in some years and some environments in the high rainfall (greater than 600 mm annual rainfall) areas of South West Western Australia.
Cutworms are plump, smooth caterpillars, of several moth species. They feed on all crop and pasture plants, damaging them near the ground. The caterpillars hide under the soil or litter by day.
Herbicides can be applied by a variety of means including boom sprayers, aerial spraying, misters, blanket wipers, rope wick applicators, weed seekers and back-pack sprayers.
Waterlogging is a common problem in the agricultural soils of south-west Western Australia in the wetter months of winter.
Waterlogging in the higher rainfall areas (more than 450 mm annual rainfall) of south-west Western Australian crops and pastures is a common cause of reduced plant growth in winter, especially on d
Herbicide performance can vary greatly depending on a number of factors. These can include compatibility of herbicides, water quality, sprayer decontamination and controlling stressed weeds.
Permanent raised beds are a practical and economic means of managing some waterlogged sites in wetter areas of the Western Australian grainbelt.
In Western Australia, competition from 7-90 capeweed plants per square metre in a wheat crop can reduce crop yield by 28-44% and net return by 25-76%.