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Frost risk occurs virtually every year across southern and eastern agricultural regions. Actual occurrence of frost is determined by location and landscape factors as well as climate.
Waterlogging causes clay to disperse in sodic soils, leading to soil structure collapse.
Permanent raised beds are a practical and economic means of managing some waterlogged sites in wetter areas of the Western Australian grainbelt.
Raised beds are a long-term option for waterlogged sites and increasing crop yield on target areas.
Claying involves adding and incorporating clay-rich subsoil into water repellent topsoil to overcome the repellence.
Waterlogging causes significant reductions in plant growth in some years and some environments in the high rainfall (greater than 600 mm annual rainfall) areas of South West Western Australia.
Waterlogging is a common problem in the agricultural soils of south-west Western Australia in the wetter months of winter.
Waterlogging in the higher rainfall areas (more than 450 mm annual rainfall) of south-west Western Australian crops and pastures is a common cause of reduced plant growth in winter, especially on d