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Waterlogging causes clay to disperse in sodic soils, leading to soil structure collapse.
Permanent raised beds are a practical and economic means of managing some waterlogged sites in wetter areas of the Western Australian grainbelt.
Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of annual winter cropping systems in southern Australia.
Herbicides play a vital role in integrated weed management programs.
Raised beds are a long-term option for waterlogged sites and increasing crop yield on target areas.
Claying involves adding and incorporating clay-rich subsoil into water repellent topsoil to overcome the repellence.
Frost risk occurs virtually every year across southern and eastern agricultural regions. Actual occurrence of frost is determined by location and landscape factors as well as climate.
Waterlogging causes significant reductions in plant growth in some years and some environments in the high rainfall (greater than 600 mm annual rainfall) areas of South West Western Australia.
Herbicides can be applied by a variety of means including boom sprayers, aerial spraying, misters, blanket wipers, rope wick applicators, weed seekers and back-pack sprayers.