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Soil compaction is rearrangement of soil particles and reduction in macro-porosity and total pore space by stresses.
Some biological processes can impact on the severity and expression of soil water repellence. Certain soil microbes can degrade and break down the waxes that cause soil water repellence.
Banded wetting agents can make dry furrow sowing of water repellent soils more reliable.
All surface and subsurface soils can be compacted; some more easily than others.
Growing oaten hay on frost-prone paddocks minimises the frost risk as it is cut soon after flowering, avoiding the frost-sensitive period.
Yellow, brown and red deep sands.
Deep ripping mechanically breaks up compacted soil layers, however care must be taken to ensure results are effective.
The use of no-till crop establishment practice is essential for farming raised beds. Cultivation is likely to degrade the bed and furrow construction.
Stubble management on raised beds should specifically be focussed on reducing the build-up of stubble in the furrows.
Raised beds are a long-term option for preventing waterlogging and increasing crop yield on target areas.