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Adult and nymph aphids suck sap with large populations limiting grain yield and size, especially winter and spring infestations.
Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of annual winter cropping systems in southern Australia.
In Western Australia, competition from 7-90 capeweed plants per square metre in a wheat crop can reduce crop yield by 28-44% and net return by 25-76%.
In an integrated weed management program, control of weeds should occur in the fallow, pre-sowing, early post-emergent and in pasture phases.