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Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of annual winter cropping systems in southern Australia.
In-crop weed competition causes losses costing around $1 billion per annum for Western Australia.
Integrated weed management (IWM) is a system for managing weeds over the long term, and is particularly useful for managing and minimising herbicide resistance.
In an integrated weed management program, control of weeds should occur in the fallow, pre-sowing, early post-emergent and in pasture phases.
Herbicide performance can vary greatly depending on a number of factors. These can include compatibility of herbicides, water quality, sprayer decontamination and controlling stressed weeds.
The most accurate way to estimate the weed population of a paddock is to count the number of plants in an area of known size at a number of locations.
In Western Australia, competition from 7-90 capeweed plants per square metre in a wheat crop can reduce crop yield by 28-44% and net return by 25-76%.
Flaxleaf and tall fleabane (Conyza spp.) are emerging weeds in Western Australia, germinating in spring and becoming major weeds in summer.
Doublegee or spiny emex is a significant weed in Western Australia. It is a vigorous annual herb with a strong tap root and a long, fleshy, hairless stem.
Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of an individual plant to survive a herbicide application that would kill a normal population of the same species.