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One-off soil inversion results in the complete burial of the water repellent topsoil in a layer typically at a depth of 15 to 35 cm, and brings to the surface a layer of wettable subsoil.
One method of weed control is to remove weed seeds in the fallow, stubble and pre-sowing phase.
Frost occurs on clear nights in early spring when the air temperature drops to 2°C or less.
Furrow sowing forms micro-relief, small ridges and furrows, into which water can be harvested.
Water repellence develops when there is an accumulation of hydrophobic organic substances in a susceptible soil. Hydrophobic compounds are derived from plant and microbial sources.
Water repellence results in uneven wetting of soil in autumn which can result in patchy and staggered crop and pasture emergence. Sandy soils are particularly susceptible.
Wheat is highly susceptible to frost damage between ear emergence and flowering – often termed reproductive frost.