MySoil: Deep sandy duplexes (Moora to Kojonup)

Grey, brown and yellow sands over sandy clay or reticulite (mottled loamy sand) at 30–80 centimetres (cm) depth.

Broadscale map (1:250 000) of the Moora to Kojonup Agzone showing the distribution of deep sandy duplexes. Distribution is scattered, near Darkan, Moora and Cunderdin with 50–100%, while Clackline to Cranbrook show mainly 25–50% deep sandy duplexes.
A stylised diagram of the soil profile showing the topsoil and subsoil layers for yellow/brown deep sandy duplex.  The soil profile is yellow/brown sand over sandy clay loam to clay at <30cm.
Soil pit showing the profile of yellow deep sandy duplex in the Moora to Kojonup region.  Yellow sand over clay at <30cm.

Summary

Table 1 Deep sandy duplexes summary
Occurrence Moora to Kojonup (28%)

Soil Groups of Western Australia (WA)

401 Alkaline Grey Deep Sandy Duplex

403 Grey Deep Sandy Duplex

407 Yellow /Brown Deep Sandy Duplex

409 Reticulite Deep Sandy Duplex

Also known as

Slopes of deep sandy duplex, loamy sand surfaced valley duplex, Dale valley deep sandy duplex, ADZ valley alkaline deep sandy duplex

Australian soil classifications

401, 403, 407 - Calcic Grey, Grey, Yellow or Brown Sodosol, Grey, Yellow or Brown Chromosol

409 - Reticulate Kandosol, Reticulate Chromosol, Tenosol

Distinguishing features

Topsoil

  • Pale brown, yellow or white acidic to neutral sands between depths of 30-80cm.
  • Gravel (<20%) can be present usually at the base of the topsoil (sand) layer.

Subsoil

  • Bleached sand layer commonly occurs above clay layer.
  • Abrupt boundary between sand and clay layers or mottled reticulite.
  • Clays often sodic, mottled and appear as polyhedral columns.
  • Clay pH mildly acidic to neutral (403, 407, 409) through to alkaline (401).

Constraints

The following data has been derived from actual site samples taken. These results are recorded in this Excel spreadsheet.

Table 2 Common management constraints key
Rating Limitation
Not applicable (n/a)

No constraints identified

Minor

Minor constraint - reduces crop yields in some years

Major

Major constraint - reduces crop yields in most years

Severe

Severe constraint - will always reduce crop yields

Table 3 Management constraints for deep sandy duplexes

Soil Group of WA

401 Alkaline grey deep sandy duplex*

401 Alkaline grey deep sandy duplex*

401 Alkaline grey deep sandy duplex*

 

403 Grey deep sandy duplex*

403 Grey deep sandy duplex*

403 Grey deep sandy duplex*

 

407 Yellow /Brown deep sandy duplex*

407 Yellow /Brown deep sandy duplex*

407 Yellow /Brown deep sandy duplex*

 

409 Reticulite deep sandy duplex*

409 Reticulite deep sandy duplex*

409 Reticulite deep sandy duplex*

Constraints

Topsoil (0-10cm)

Subsurface (10cm - clay)

Subsoil (clay)

 

Topsoil (0-10cm)

Subsurface (10cm - clay)

Subsoil (clay)

 

Topsoil (0-10cm)

Subsurface (10cm - clay)

Subsoil (clay)

 

Topsoil (0-10cm)

Subsurface (10cm - clay)

Subsoil (clay)

Acidity and aluminium toxicity

Minor n/a n/a   Major

Major

Minor   Minor Major Minor   Minor Minor Minor
Salinity

n/a

n/a

n/a

  Minor n/a n/a  

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

Sodicity and alkalinity

n/a

n/a Minor  

n/a

n/a

Minor  

n/a

n/a

Minor  

n/a

n/a

n/a

Boron toxicity

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

Poor nutrient retention Major

Severe

Minor   Major

Major

MInor   Minor

Minor

n/a   Major

Major

Minor
Aggregate stability

n/a

n/a

Minor  

n/a

n/a

Minor  

n/a

n/a

Minor  

n/a

n/a

Minor
Compaction and hard layers

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

Hard setting and crusting

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

Water repellence Minor

n/a

n/a

  Major

n/a

n/a

  Major

n/a

n/a

  Minor

n/a

n/a

Low plant available water Minor

Minor

n/a

 

Major

Minor

n/a

 

Minor

Minor

n/a

 

Minor

Minor

n/a

Water-logging (seasonal) n/a

Minor

n/a

 

n/a

Minor

n/a

 

n/a

Minor

n/a

 

n/a

Minor

n/a

Wind erosion (seasonal)

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

Water erosion (seasonal)

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

n/a

n/a

n/a

*Note - Data derived from site identifications (ID's).

  • Soil Group of WA - 401 Alkaline Grey Deep Sandy Duplex site ID includes: KLC 0801.
  • Soil Group of WA - 403 Grey Deep Sandy Duplex site ID includes: TON 0798,TON 0794, KLC 2311, KLC 0559, KLC 1577, KLC 1578, KLC 0137, KLC 0141, KLC 0145, KLC 2321, COR 1662, COR 1663, COR 1667, KLC 0139, KLC 0721, KLC 0720.
  • Soil Group of WA - 407 Yellow /Brown Deep Sandy Duplex site ID includes: KLC 0558, KLC 0557, KLC 1579, KLC 2318, KLC 0142, KLC 0495, FFS 0127, FFS 0111, FFS 0106, FFS 0096.
  • Soil Group of WA - 409 Reticulite Deep Sandy Duplex site ID includes: SC2 BRL1, SC2 BRU2, COR 1672.

Further information

Department of Agriculture and Food (2013) Report card on sustainable natural resource use in agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.

Fulton, I and Lantzke, N (1993) Soils of the Northam Advisory District: The Darling Range and West Kokeby Zones. Bulletin No. 4257. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Lantzke, N (1992) Soils of the Northam Advisory District. Bulletin No. 4244. The Zone of Ancient Drainage. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Lantzke, N (1993) Soils of the Northam Advisory District. Bulletin No. 4245. The Zone of Rejuvenated Drainage. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Lantzke, N and Fulton, I (1993) Land Resources of the Northam Region. Series No.11. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

McArthur, WM (2004) Reference Soils of South-western Australia (Reprint). Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.

Moore, G (2004) Soil Guide: A Handbook for Understanding and Managing Agricultural Soils. Bulletin 4343. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.

Percy, H (2000) Katanning Area Land Resource Survey. Land Resources Series No. 16. Agriculture Western Australia.

Sawkins, D (2010) Landscapes and Soils of the Northam District. Bulletin 4803. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.

Sawkins, D (2010) Landscapes and Soils of the Narrogin District. Bulletin 4807. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.

Sawkins, D (2010) Landscapes and Soils of the Katanning District. Bulletin 4817. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.

Schoknecht, N and Pathan, S (2013) Soil Groups of Western Australia. Resource Management Technical Report 380. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.

Stoneman, TC (1990) An Introduction to the Soils of the Moora Advisory District. Bulletin 4182. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Stoneman, TC (1991) An Introduction to the Soils of the Narrogin Advisory District. Bulletin 4221. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Stoneman, TC (1991) An Introduction to the Soils of the Katanning Advisory District. Bulletin 4202. Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

Verboom, B and Galloway, P (2004). Corrigin Area Land Resource Survey. Land Resources Series No. 20. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.

See also

Further information

Page last updated: Wednesday, 18 November 2015 - 9:34am