- Primary salinity refers to soils and landscapes that were saline in their undisturbed state, before agricultural development.
- Most common are alkaline aeolian morrell-blackbutt loams on the edge of major wheatbelt valleys.
- Secondary salinity refers to soils and landscapes that have become saline since being developed for agriculture.
- Secondary salinity is caused by salt accumulation in the soil from shallow saline watertables that have developed after land clearing when shallow-rooted crops and pastures replaced deep-rooted perennials.
- Soils vary but are frequently duplex or heavy textured.
- Salinity is frequently accompanied by waterlogging in winter, which greatly increases plant damage.