Boneseed: declared pest

Page last updated: Saturday, 28 September 2019 - 12:43pm

Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review.

Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera) is a declared pest in Western Australia (WA). This article describes the nature of the plant with links to requirements land owners/occupiers must adhere to and pest control methods.

Form: shrub — perennial

Status: present in WA

Boneseed is a native of South Africa, where it is mainly found in coastal areas. Boneseed is a Weed of National Significance (WoNS).


An erect, shallow-rooted shrub grows up to three metres tall, and which is spread only by seed. Boneseed is a prolific seeder, and can develop into dense infestations.

Stem: Densely branched shrub with dull green, irregularly serrated leaves arranged alternately on the branches.

Leaves: Paddle-shaped, about five to seven centimetres long and smooth except for a tuft of downy hair at the end; they are formed on short leaf stalks (petioles).

Flowers: Typical daisy flowers. They are bright yellow with five or six yellow ray florets (petals) surrounding a few brown disk florets. Flowers are up to three centimetres in diameter and are formed in clusters at the end of branches. Plant flowers from July to October, but usually not until the plants are at least 18 months old.

Fruit: Round.

Seeds: Only one seed is produced by each floret. Each flower head produces up to eight spherical green berries which go black as they ripen. They consist of a soft fleshy coat surrounding a hard, bone-like seed. The mature fruit contains one very hard and bone-like seed. The seeds germinate mainly in autumn but can germinate at any time of year if the soil is sufficiently moist. They remain dormant in the soil if conditions are unsuitable for germination.

Seedlings: Leaves with toothed edges.

Agricultural and economic impact

Boneseed is an environmental weed that grows under a wide range of climatic conditions but prefers sandy or medium-textured soils and disturbed situations, particularly near the sea because it tolerates salty conditions.

Declared pest category

The Western Australian Organism List (WAOL) contains information on the area(s) in which this pest is declared and the control and keeping categories to which it has been assigned in Western Australia (WA). Search for boneseed in the WAOL  using the scientific name Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera.

Requirements for land owners/occupiers and other persons

Requirements for land owners/occupiers and other persons if this pest is found can be sourced through the declared plant requirements link.

Search > detect > report

MyPestGuide™ Reporter
via app or online
(Select 'Send report to MyWeedWatcher' from menu)

Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS)
+61 (0)8 9368 3080

Control method

Control methods for this declared plant can be found through the boneseed control link.

Contact information

Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS)
+61 (0)8 9368 3080
Technical support - MyPestGuide®