Nearly 80% of area sown to canola in Western Australia is still open pollinated (OP) triazine tolerant (TT) varieties. However, breeding companies are favouring the development of hybrids in order to pay for breeding services. Hybrids provide growers with more vigorous seedlings, comparatively better plant establishment and generally higher yields. However, growers have to purchase new seed of hybrid varieties every year, which is 25 times more expensive than the seed of open pollinated canola.
This trial is investigating if farmers in the low rainfall region are better off using purchased (F1) or retained (F2) TT hybrid canola seed.
This trial is part of a series, where the same trial is repeated at Grass Patch, Ballidu, Merredin and Holt Rock.
To investigate whether agronomy can overcome the yield penalty of retained (F2) TT hybrid canola compared with purchased (F1) hybrid seed by using;
- seed mixes
- increased density or
- grading to increase seed size.
- Location: Hood family farm, Ballidu
- Agzone 4, growing season rainfall (GSR) = 245mm
- Sowing date: 28 April
- Fertiliser- 100kg/ha of Macropro Plus at seeding.
- Purchased (F1) and retained (F2) Hyola 450 TT, OP comparison, ATR Bonito
- Seed size; retained seed (F2) graded over and below 1.8mm sieve
- Mixes; 25%, 50% and 75% purchased (F1), with remainder being retained (F2) seed
- Density: two densities of 20 or 40 plants/m2
Two different commercial seed lots of Hyola 450 TT F1 seed were used, purchased in 2014 and 2015. 2015 seed of ATR Bonito was used as an open-pollinated control. All trials were sown using DPIRD cone seeders at a depth of 2cm, followed by press wheels. Trial plots were 20m x 1.54m. A randomised complete block design with three replicates was used.
All trials were sown at two target densities. The graded F2 seed was retained on a 1.8mm screen, while the small seed passed through that screen. Different F1:F2 seed mixes were prepared, using the 2015 F1 seed. Seeding rates were calculated according to the target density, expected field establishment, seed size and germination per cent (Table 1). Establishment counts were taken 4-6 weeks after sowing by counting 10m of plants, over five locations within each plot. Plots were machine harvested and oil and protein measured on samples from each plot.
|Seed||Seed size (mg)||Seeds/kg||Germination (%)||Expected field establishment|
|Hyola 450 TT F1 2014||5.53||180 766||88||85|
|Hyola 450 TT F1 2015||4.26||235 000||97||85|
|Hyola 450 TT F2||3.30||302 755||99||85|
|Large Hyola 450 TT F2||3.91||255 754||100||85|
|Small Hyola 450 TT F2||3.12||320 513||100||85|
|Mix 25% F1#: 75% F2||Mix||Mix||Mix||85|
|Mix 50% F1#: 50% F2||Mix||Mix||Mix||85|
|Mix 75% F1#: 25% F2||Mix||Mix||Mix||85|
|ATR Bonito (OP)||4.35||320 000||98||75|
|Seed||Seeding rate (kg/ha) @ 20 plants/m2||Seeding rate (kg/ha) @ 40 plants/m2||Seed cost ($/ha) @ 20 plants/m2||Seed cost ($/ha) @ 40 plants/m2|
|Hyola 450 TT F1 2014||1.5||3.0||35.50||71.00|
|Hyola 450 TT F1 2015||1.0||2.1||24.77||49.55|
|Hyola 450 TT F2||0.8||1.6||1.57||3.14|
|Large Hyola 450 TT F2||0.9||1.8||1.84||3.68|
|Small Hyola 450 TT F2||0.7||1.5||1.47||2.94|
|Mix 25% F1#: 75% F2||0.8||1.7||7.37||14.74|
|Mix 50% F1#: 50% F2||0.9||1.8||13.17||26.34|
|Mix 75% F1#: 25% F2||1.0||1.9||18.97||37.94|
|ATR Bonito (OP)||1.2||2.4||2.37||4.73|
# 2015 F1 used in seed mixes.
Note that the difference in seeding rates between the two purchased seed treatments is due to differences in seed size and germination percent.
Assumptions used in gross margins
- Oil bonus +/- 1.5% per unit of oil (%) either side of 42%, with no oil ceiling.
- Seed costs at $2/kg for ATR Bonito and retained hybrid (F2) seed Hyola 450 TT, range $1.50-$4.70. Seed costs at $24/kg for purchased (F1) hybrid seed Hyola 450 TT, range $24.77-$71.00 at high density.
- $5 end point royalty for OP variety, ATR Bonito.
- $260 used for other costs except seed, for both canola varieties. This included $58 for herbicides, $78 for fertiliser, also insecticides, fungicide, insurance, labour, repairs, depreciation, fuel and interest.
- Long term canola price used of $555, which was $513 at farm gate, after cartage and CBH costs.
The overall field establishment was 65%. This was a high of 72% and 67% for the F1 hybrid treatments, while the F2 was lower at 60%. The grading caused differences with an increase to 66% for the large F2 seed although no change for the small F2 seed. The open pollinated variety, ATR Bonito had a field establishment of 64%. There was no difference in field establishment with different densities.
Although there was a solid establishment of 65% overall, the calculated seeding rate was too low so the actual plant density was 15 and 32 plants/m2, rather than the target densities of 20 and 40 plants/m2.
|GM ($/ha)||GM ($/ha)||GY (kg/ha)||GY (kg/ha)||Oil (%)||Oil (%)|
|Target density (plants/m2)||20||40||20||40||20||40|
|25% F1: 75% F2||166||212||823||926||44.5||44.3|
|50% F1: 50% F2||184||224||869||962||44.3||44.9|
|75% F1: 25% F2||222||302||941||1121||45.2||45.5|
Overall, there was a 12% (110kg) yield loss from using 2015 retained (F2) seed, rather than purchased (F1) hybrid TT canola, a drop in oil of 1.1% and $33 (15%) drop in gross margin (from average of 20 and 40 plants/m2 densities).
Mixes of seed produced a relatively linear response; the more purchased (F1) seed in the mix, the better was the yield, oil and gross margin.
Increasing the density of the retained (F2) seed increased the yield by 175kg/ha and increased the gross margin, but did not quite reach the purchased (F1) yield and gross margin.
Similarly, grading the F2 seed increased the yield, oil and gross margin but did not match the purchased (F1) canola result.
Growers generally use a higher plant density for (cheap) retained seed, compared with purchased seed. Using both the higher plant density and grading the retained (F2) seed gave a yield of 988kg/ha, which was higher than the 895kg/ha of the 2015 F1 at 20plants/m2. The higher yields and lower seed costs of the high density graded retained seed gave a better gross margin ($257/ha) than the 2015 F1 at low density ($191/ha).
The best yields, oil and gross margins from the trial were the open pollinated variety ATR Bonito, at 1.18t/ha yield, 46.5% oil and a gross margin of $376/ha.
Trial series results; Grass Patch, Ballidu, Merredin and Holt Rock
These results are similar to the other trials at Ballidu, and Merredin, where the OP variety gave the best yields, oil and gross margin. The trial at Grass Patch was the highest yielding of the series, at 1.6t/ha, and gave the best gross margins and the biggest advantage of OP over hybrid seed (F1 and F2). The same general pattern was repeated at Ballidu (1.2t/ha), Merredin (1.1t/ha) and Holt Rock (600kg/ha).
There was a trend (that is, non significant) of higher yields and gross margin of purchased hybrid seed (F1) over retained seed (F2) at Grass Patch, Merredin and Holt Rock but not at Ballidu.
|Purchased hybrid (F1) vs retained hybrid (F2)||OP vs purchased hybrid (F1)||OP vs retained hybrid (F2)|
|Grain yield (kg/ha)||80||215||300|
|Gross margin ($/ha)||$17||$150||$167|
The highest grain yield, oil and gross margins was from the open pollinated variety at the higher target density (40 plants/m2). Growers should continue to use open pollinated TT varieties in the low rainfall regions, rather than hybrid varieties.
Where growers in the low rainfall regions choose to grow hybrid varieties, expect a yield and oil advantage and possibly a small gross margin advantage from using purchased (F1) seed, rather than retained (F2) seed. It is recommended that growers purchase fresh (F1) seed, rather than retaining seed.
Agronomy reduced the yield penalty from growing retained (F2) seed, compared with the purchased (F1) seed. Where growers choose to retain hybrid varieties, grade to increase seed size and target high plant density.
This trial (15WH24) is part of the Tactical Break Crop Agronomy in Western Australia project, which is jointly funded by the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (DPIRD) and Grains Research and Development Corporation.
Thanks to the Sanderson family for hosting the trial and to the Esperance RSU for trial management. Pam Burgess (DPIRD Esperance) provided technical assistance to ensure all treatments and measurements occurred in a timely and accurate fashion.